Dissent: 1947

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President Harry Truman orders loyalty oaths for government employees.

HUAC subpoenas ten Hollywood screenwriters and directors, who invoke their First Amendment rights and refuse to testify about their political beliefs and those of others. The men become known as the “Hollywood Ten.”

See a film profiling several of the Hollywood Ten:

Hollywood studio executives announce that the Hollywood Ten will be fired. The studios create a blacklist of writers, directors and performers whom the studios will not hire because of their suspected political beliefs.

County of Los Angeles requires its 20,000 employees to sign affidavits that they do not advocate the overthrow of the government by violence and do not have any affiliation with approximately 140 allegedly communist organizations. In the following year, cities throughout California pass similar requirements.

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