1790 - 1870
Congress passes a law limiting naturalization to "free white persons."
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican American War.
Gold discovered in California
Bilingual Spanish-English Constitutional Convention held in Monterey.
Legislature passes laws:
- Allowing for the virtual slavery of Indian children and of adult Indians declared “vagrants” by judges. The law expires in 1863.
- Barring African Americans, Indians, and mulattoes from testifying against whites in criminal cases. The following year, the legislature bans testimony from the same groups in civil trials.
- Criminalizing abortion except in cases where the mother’s life is endangered.
Legislature criminalizes sodomy as a felony. For decades, the maximum punishment is life imprisonment.
Foreign Miners’ Tax of $20 a month is levied to discourage Latino miners. The tax is repealed in 1851.
A mob drives Mexican miners out of Tuolumne County, killing many of them.