1871 - 1910

Women: 1881

Mary Maguire, arrested for tending bar, wins an acquittal and a ruling striking down the ordinance that bans women from that job.

Immigrants' Rights, Race: 1882

E-PluribusE-PluribusCongress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act.

Criminal Justice: 1885

All Chinese residents of Eureka and surrounding areas are expelled after a white councilman is accidentally killed in crossfire between two Chinese men. Hundreds of such purges took place throughout California in the late 1800s.

Race: 1885

Oriental SchoolOriental School Legislature passes a law allowing school districts to segregate Asian students from white schools.

Criminal Justice, Early California: 1885

All Chinese residents of Eureka and surrounding areas are expelled after a white councilman is accidentally killed in crossfire between two Chinese men. Hundreds of such purges took place throughout California in the late 1800s.

Immigrants' Rights: 1886

Yick Wo laundryYick Wo laundryIn Yick Wo v. Hopkins, the U.S. Supreme Court strikes down a San Francisco ordinance requiring operators of laundries in wooden buildings to obtain approval from the Board of Supervisors to stay in business. Not coincidentally, Chinese laundries operate in wooden buildings. This is the first U.S. Supreme Court decision to state that the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment apply to non-citizens, and that a law that is impartial on its face but is enforced in a discriminatory manner is unconstitutional.

Race: 1890

State supreme court rules in Wysinger v. Crookshank that the Visalia school district cannot segregate black students but only because the Legislature has not allowed such segregation. 

Immigrants' Rights: 1892

Geary Act extends the Chinese Exclusion Act another 10 years and compels all Chinese legitimately in the United States to obtain a government-issued identity certificate that must be carried at all times. Those stopped without the certificate are subject to immediate deportation.

Race: 1893

Legislature passes a law outlawing streetcar segregation, but also a law allowing segregation of American Indian students.

Immigrants' Rights: 1894

Voters amend the state constitution to deny voting rights to individuals who cannot write their names and read the constitution in English.
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