1911 - 1950

Race: 1935

Legislature amends the General School Law to ban the segregation of American Indian students. 

Labor: May 1935

More than 200 striking lumberjacks erect a barrier to the Holmes-Eureka Mill (Humboldt County). Police retaliate with tear gas, and strikers throw rocks at police. Vigilantes raid strikers’ homes and strike soup kitchens. Three lumber mill workers are killed, eight are wounded and 150 strikers are jailed.

Dissent: 1935

Vigilantes in Santa Rosa tar and feather two men who were organizing apple pickers in Sonoma County.

Criminal Justice: 1936

Migrant FamilyMigrant FamilyLos Angeles police chief James Davis sends his officers to California’s borders with Arizona, Oregon, and Nevada to set up “bum blockades” to prevent indigent people from entering.

Religion: 1936

Charlotte GabrielliCharlotte GabrielliCharlotte Gabrielli, a Jehovah’s Witness, is expelled from her Sacramento elementary school for not reciting the Pledge of Allegiance, which violated her religious beliefs.

Criminal Justice: 1937

Gas chamber replaces hanging as the method of capital punishment.

Dissent: 1938

Los Angeles Mayor Frank Shaw is recalled for corruption. Newly-elected mayor Fletcher Bowron disbands the “Red Squad.”

Congress establishes the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).

Religion: 1938

California Supreme Court upholds the compulsory flag salute, leading to widespread disciplinary action against Jehovah’s Witness students.

Labor: July 13, 1938

Armed vigilantes attack strikers at the Red River Lumber Company in Westwood (Lassen County). National Labor Relations Board orders Red River Lumber to stop organizing vigilante groups and to discourage violations of its employees’ and their families’ civil rights.

Criminal Justice: 1938

Harry Raymond with crutches outside courthouseHarry Raymond with crutches outside courthouseA bomb explodes as private detective Harry Raymond starts his car. Raymond was scheduled to testify before a Los Angeles grand jury about corruption of city leaders. Raymond is injured but still testifies.

Los Angeles Police Department Captain Earle Kynette, head of the force’s “Intelligence Squad,” is convicted of attempted murder and other crimes related to the bombing of Harry Raymond’s car. His trial reveals that the Intelligence Squad kept dossiers on individuals whom the mayor and police considered political enemies.

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