1911 - 1950

World War II Incarceration: Nov. 1945

Group of Tule Lake renunciants file a mass habeas corpus petition, Abo v. Clark, to prevent deportation. They file another suit to reinstate their U.S. citizenship.

World War II Incarceration: Jan. 1946

Justice Department beings holding “mitigation hearings” for renunciants.  Those who can prove that they were under duress at the time of their renunciations are freed.

Labor: 1946

Proposition 11, a labor-supported initiative to create a state anti-discrimination law in employment, fails.

Immigrants' Rights: 1946

Voters reject Proposition 14, which would have expanded the “Alien Land Law.”

Race: 1946

A federal judge rules in Mendez v. Westminster that segregation of Mexican American students in Orange County schools violates their constitutional rights. An appellate court upholds the decision.

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World War II Incarceration: March 1946

Tule Lake camp closes.  One thousand renunciants whose mitigation hearings have not taken place are transferred to a Justice Department camp at Crystal City, Texas.

LGBT Rights: 1947

President Harry Truman institutes a federal anti-gay witch hunt.

In Los Angeles, Lisa Ben (pseudonym) self-publishes “Vice Versa,” the first known publication for lesbians.

Dissent: 1947

President Harry Truman orders loyalty oaths for government employees.

HUAC subpoenas ten Hollywood screenwriters and directors, who invoke their First Amendment rights and refuse to testify about their political beliefs and those of others. The men become known as the “Hollywood Ten.”

See a film profiling several of the Hollywood Ten:

Hollywood studio executives announce that the Hollywood Ten will be fired. The studios create a blacklist of writers, directors and performers whom the studios will not hire because of their suspected political beliefs.

County of Los Angeles requires its 20,000 employees to sign affidavits that they do not advocate the overthrow of the government by violence and do not have any affiliation with approximately 140 allegedly communist organizations. In the following year, cities throughout California pass similar requirements.

World War II Incarceration: June 1947

A U.S. District Judge orders all remaining renunciants freed and cancels their deportation. Government appeals.

Immigrants' Rights: 1948

U.S. Supreme Court overturns a California Supreme Court decision in People v. Oyama and invalidates a component of the “Alien Land Law” barring Japanese immigrants from purchasing land in the names of their U.S. citizen children.

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