Immigrants Rights

Immigrants' Rights: 1894

Voters amend the state constitution to deny voting rights to individuals who cannot write their names and read the constitution in English.

Immigrants' Rights: 1898

Wong Kim ArkWong Kim ArkU.S. Supreme Court rules in United States v. Wong Kim Ark that individuals born in the Untied States are American citizens.

Immigrants' Rights: 1902

Congress indefinitely extends the Chinese Exclusion Act.

Immigrants' Rights: 1908

BrideBrideUnited States and Japan negotiate the “Gentlemen’s Agreement,” in which Japan voluntarily agrees to limit immigration to the U.S., thereby virtually ending immigration of Japanese laborers to the U.S. However, the wives and families of Japanese immigrants already in the U.S. are allowed to immigrate.

Immigrants' Rights: 1910-1940

Angel Island in San Francisco Bay serves as an immigration station for people arriving from east Asia, south Asia, and Russia. The government detains and interrogates thousands of Chinese newcomers to determine whether they are lawful immigrants.

Immigrants' Rights: 1913

Legislature passes a law barring “aliens ineligible for citizenship” (i.e. Asians) from owning land and restricting leases to three years. The law applies almost exclusively to Japanese immigrants.

Immigrants' Rights: 1917

U.S. government begins recruiting Mexican workers to fill a labor shortage because of World War I. After the war, farmers continue to recruit Mexican workers.

Immigrants' Rights: 1920

Voters pass an “alien land” initiative outlawing Japanese immigrants from leasing land, buying land in the names of their U.S.-born citizen children, or acting as guardians of their children’s property.

Immigrants' Rights: 1922

California Supreme Court strikes the component of the “alien land law” that prohibits Japanese immigrants from serving as guardians of property in their children’s names.

Immigrants' Rights: 1924

Congress passes legislation cutting off immigration from Japan.
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