Race

Early California, Immigrants Rights, Race: 1879

Voters ratify a new state constitution.  At the urging of the Workingmen’s Party, the new constitution denies Chinese immigrants the right to vote, bans the hiring of Chinese by corporations or on public works, and authorizes cities to require Chinese residents to live outside city limits or in segregated areas.

Race: 1880

Legislature amends the General School Law, eliminating all references to race, and repeals the law allowing school districts to establish separate schools for African American and Indian children.

Legislature amends anti-miscegenation law to ban marriages between whites and “Mongolians” (Asians)

Immigrants' Rights, Race: 1882

E-PluribusE-PluribusCongress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act.

Race: 1885

Oriental SchoolOriental School Legislature passes a law allowing school districts to segregate Asian students from white schools.

Race: 1890

State supreme court rules in Wysinger v. Crookshank that the Visalia school district cannot segregate black students but only because the Legislature has not allowed such segregation. 

Race: 1893

Legislature passes a law outlawing streetcar segregation, but also a law allowing segregation of American Indian students.

Race: 1905

Labor groups and the Native Sons of the Golden West form the Oriental Exclusion League and successfully lobby San Francisco school officials to segregate Japanese American children.  President Theodore Roosevelt intervenes after the Japanese government lodges a formal complaint, and he convinces the school board to allow the Japanese students to attend integrated schools.

Race: 1919

State supreme court upholds the legality of a restrictive covenant preventing an African American from living in a Los Angeles home.

Race: 1921

Legislature passes a law requiring Indian children to attend segregated federal Indian schools if one exists within three miles of their homes. 

Race: 1922

Congress passes the Cable Act, which strips a woman of her American citizenship if she marries an Asian immigrant (who were at the time not allowed to naturalize). The Act is repealed in 1936.

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