Race: 1962

BurksBurksIn Burks v. Poppy Construction, the California Supreme Court upholds the Unruh Act and rules that it applies to real estate transactions. 

Race: 1963

Demonstrator in TorranceDemonstrator in TorranceAdvocates from the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and others stage demonstrations at a new housing development in Torrance, accusing the developer of discriminating against African Americans.

Legislature passes the Rumford Act, named for Byron Rumford, the first African American elected to public office in Northern California, which outlawed racial discrimination in most privately financed housing.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee sponsor a two-mile march through downtown Los Angeles to protest school segregation.Anti-segregation marchAnti-segregation march

NAACP and United Civil Rights Commission file a class action lawsuit, Crawford v. Board of Education to compel the Los Angeles school board to integrate nearly all-black Jordan High School with nearly all-white South Gate High School a mile away.  The school board delays a trial for five years by pledging to desegregate but presenting plans that impact only a handful of students.

California Supreme Court rules in Jackson v. Pasadena City School District that school boards have a constitutional obligation to end segregation regardless of its cause.

Race: 1964

No on 14No on 14Proposition 14, an initiative sponsored by the California Real Estate Association, the Home Builders Association, and the Apartment Owners Association, passes by a two-to-one margin.  The initiative amends the state constitution to rescind all existing fair housing laws and to bar the Legislature from ever passing laws related to housing discrimination.

Race: 1967

In Reitman v. Mulkey, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds a California Supreme Court decision invalidating Proposition 14 as a violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment to the federal constitution.

Race: 1968

President Johnson signs a law which belatedly compensates California Indians for more than 64 million acres of land seized during the 19th century. The settlement works out to approximately 47 cents an acre.

Race: 1969

Drummers on AlcatrazDrummers on AlcatrazNearly 100 young Indians, mostly students, occupy Alcatraz demanding that the federal government cede the island to native Americans.  During the following 18 months, an estimated 15,000 Indians from throughout the country visit or live on Alcatraz.

See interviews with American Indians on Alcatraz during the occupation.

Race: 1970

Judge Alfred Gitelson issues a landmark ruling in Crawford v. Board of Education calling the Los Angeles school board’s conduct de jure (government sanctioned) discrimination and ordering integration by the following school year. The school board appeals, thus delaying enforcement of the decision.

Governor Ronald Reagan signs the Wakefield measure, named for South Gate Assembly member Floyd Wakefield, which prohibits busing for any purpose without written parental permission. 

Race: 1971

Federal agents remove the few remaining Indian protestors on Alcatraz.

California Supreme Court rules in San Francisco Unified School District v. Johnson, a challenge to the Wakefield anti-busing law, that districts can assign students to schools outside their neighborhoods.  Busing could be banned, but parents would still be responsible for transporting their children to their assigned school. 

Race: 1972

Voters pass Proposition 21, sponsored by Assembly member Floyd Wakefield, which prohibits school districts from assigning students to schools based on race, creed or color, and eliminates requirements that districts keep records on the racial imbalance in schools.

Race: 1975

Appellate court overrules Judge Gitelson’s decision in Crawford v. Board of Education, citing a U.S. Supreme Court decision that a court can order a school board to desegregate only if there is proof of narrowly-defined de jure segregation.

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