WWII Incarceration

World War II Incarceration: 1954

U.S. government allows Latin Americans who were forced from their home countries for incarceration in the U.S. to become American citizens.

World War II Incarceration: 1970

At the Japanese American Citizens League national convention, activist Edison Uno advocates for redress for Japanese Americans incarcerated during World War II.

World War II Incarceration: 1976

President Gerald Ford revokes Executive Order 9066 on the 34th anniversary of its issuance.  President Franklin Roosevelt had issued the order, which authorized military leaders to designate areas of the nation from which they could order people excluded.  The order was the basis for the mass removal of Japanese Americans from the west coast.

World War II Incarceration: 1980

President Jimmy Carter authorizes formation of the Commission on the Wartime Relocation and Internment and Civilians (CWRIC) to investigate Executive Order 9066 and its impact on American citizens and resident aliens.

World War II Incarceration: July - Dec. 1981

Commission on the Wartime Relocation and Internment and Civilians conducts 11 hearings throughout the country to hear testimony from former incarcerees and government officials.

World War II Incarceration: August 1982

California Governor Edmund (Jerry) Brown signs legislation providing redress for Japanese Americans state employees who were wrongfully fired during World War II.

World War II Incarceration: Feb. 1983

Commission on the Wartime Relocation and Internment and Civilians issues a 467-page report, Personal Justice Denied, and concludes that Executive Order 9066 was not justified by "military necessity" and that the World War II incarceration of Japanese Americans resulted from wartime hysteria, a failure of political leadership, and race prejudice. The Commission recommends a formal governmental apology to former incarcerees; presidential pardons for Gordon Hirabayashi, Fred Korematsu, and Minoru Yasui; an educational fund to sponsor research and public education projects focused on the incarceration; and payments of $20,000 to each surviving incarceree.

World War II Incarceration: Nov. 1983

Fred Korematsu’s wartime conviction is vacated by federal judge Marilyn Hall Patel

World War II Incarceration: August 1988

President Ronald Reagan signs HR 442, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, which authorizes a formal government apology to former incarcerees, payments of $20,000 to each surviving incarceree, and the formation of a fund to help the general public learn about the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II.

World War II Incarceration: 1996

Mochizuki v. United States is filed on behalf of Japanese Latin Americans who were abducted from their home countries yet denied redress under the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. 

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